The Seshachalam Hill ranges of the eastern ghats lie between 13°38” and 13°55” N latitudes and 79°07” and 79°24” E longitudes and spread over two districts - Chittoor and Kadapa of Southern Andhra Pradesh. Around 50% of the area of the Biosphere Reserve falls in the Reserve Forests of Chittoor East (WL), WLM Tirupati, WL Rajampet, Proddatur (WL) and Kadapa Divisions. The Biosphere Reserve includes S V National Park and S V Sanctuary.
The total geographical area of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve is 4,755.997 km2 which spreads over 638 forest compartments. In order to undertake activities relating to biodiversity conservation and development of sustainable management aspects, the area is demarcated into 3 inter-related zones:
The central part of the reserve covering an area of 750.589 km2 has been designated as core zone, which is completely free of human habitations and remains absolutely undisturbed. The core zone provides a suitable habitat for numerous plant and animal species, including higher order predators, and serves as centres of endemism, and wild relatives of economic species and also represents an important genetic reservoir. The core zone, therefore, forms a place of exceptional scientific interest. Strict nature reserves and wilderness areas of the reserve have been included as core area. Thus the Sri Venkateswara National Park forms a part of core zone. In addition, areas contiguous to the National Park and with high conservative value are included in the core zone. The core zone spreads over 183 forest compartments.
The buffer zone of reserve covers an area of 1,865.156 km2, which includes 240.87 km2 of Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary. The buffer zone spreads over 455 forest compartments. The outer boundary of the core zone forms the inner boundary of the buffer. The outer boundary of the forest compartments forms the outer boundary of the buffer.
The transition zone of Seshachalam BR covers an area falling within 5 kms radius from the outer boundary of buffer zone and spreads over 41 forest beats. The outer boundary of these forest beats form the outer boundary of the transition zone and that of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve. The temple complex of Tirumala spreading over 27.21 km2 is also included in the transition zone.